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I have seen this on Corsica (Island of France):
It is Arbutus unedo, called "strawberry tree" in English, "arbousier" in French and "medronheiro" in Portuguese. The fruits are ripe around October or November. They are full of little seeds, but if you bear the annoyance, they can be quite tasty. They are used to distill an alcohol in Portugal.
The fruit looks like lychee (Litchi chinensis). But this was a hasty guess and now I see that there is a much better answer here!
(image from Wikipedia)
What is the name of this bush with red fruits? - Biology
Waterhemp belongs to the botanical Amaranth family, which also includes the other pigweed species found in Illinois. The Latin, or scientific name, of each pigweed includes the genus name Amaranthus each respective species name differentiates among the genus members. Many taxonomic references recognize common (Amaranthus rudis) and tall (Amaranthus tuberculatus) waterhemp as discrete waterhemp species, although differentiation between the two species is based on minute floral characteristics. Specifically, the only way to accurately differentiate between tall and common waterhemp is to examine how the thin membrane surrounding the seed (utricle) fractures when separated. Common and tall waterhemp can be found in Illinois, but from a management standpoint, there is little reason to differentiate between these two species. We are not aware of any data that suggest these two species respond differently to any herbicide.
Tall and common waterhemp (hereafter referred to collectively as waterhemp) are two of nine pigweed species that can be found in Illinois. Prior to the rapid expansion of waterhemp, smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) was probably the most prevalent pigweed across much of Illinois. During early vegetative stages, smooth pigweed is nearly impossible to distinguish from redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus), another commonly encountered pigweed species. Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) may be the most aggressive pigweed species with respect to growth rate and competitive ability. Palmer amaranth can be found in the southern one-quarter of Illinois and from personal observations, appears to be moving northward in Illinois. Powell amaranth (Amaranthus powellii) is usually found in the northern portions of Illinois but can also be found in central regions of the state. Spiny amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) is rapidly identifiable by grabbing the stem with bare hands. As the name accurately implies, sharp spines are present where leaves attach to the stem. Although not very common in agronomic cropping systems, spiny amaranth can be found in pastures and around cattle feedlots. The two other pigweeds, tumble (Amaranthus albus) and prostrate (Amaranthus blitoides), are generally regarded not to be as troublesome as other Amaranthus species.
Waterhemp plants are either male or female (dioecious). Thus, male plants produce only pollen, while female plants produce only seed. This type of biology leads to cross-pollination, or the fertilization of female plants with pollen from one or more male plants. Cross-pollination can greatly increase the genetic diversity of a population, and with genetic diversity comes a wide range of morphological and biological characteristics. Seeds produced by female waterhemp plants are small and usually germinate from very shallow depths in the soil (1/2 inch or less). The number of seeds produced by female waterhemp plants can vary depending on numerous factors, but waterhemp is generally considered to be a prolific seed producer.
It has been known for many years that certain Amaranthus species are able to cross-pollinate and produce fertile hybrids. It is more likely that two dioecious species will cross, but crosses between monoecious and dioecious species can also occur. Hybrid plants produced from monoecious by dioecious crosses are less fertile than their parents, but they may produce some seed. Recently, research at the University of Illinois has demonstrated that not only can waterhemp and smooth pigweed hybridize but also herbicide-resistance characteristics can be transferred to hybrid progeny. For example, if a male waterhemp plant that is resistant to ALS-inhibiting herbicides crosses with a smooth pigweed that is susceptible to ALS-inhibiting herbicides, some of the resulting progeny can carry the ALS-resistance trait. While waterhemp in Illinois is generally not effectively controlled by ALS-inhibiting herbicides any longer, smooth pigweed (for the most part) remains susceptible to this herbicide family. If cross-pollination between waterhemp and smooth pigweed occurs substantially under field conditions, additional difficulty controlling Amaranthus species might result due to increased rates of herbicide resistance evolution.
One of the most important factors to effectively managing waterhemp is to understand its germination and emergence characteristics. The germination and emergence patterns of waterhemp are characteristics that contribute significantly to management problems. While the peak emergence of other, more familiar summer annual weed species generally occurs during the early portion of the growing season, waterhemp emergence can easily occur during the middle to late portions of the growing season. Research at Iowa State University has indicated that while velvetleaf emergence is nearly complete by early June, a significant number of waterhemp plants can emerge well into July. Soil-applied herbicides may not have sufficient soil-residual activity to control late-emerging flushes of waterhemp. Conversely, certain postemergence herbicides can control waterhemp present at the time of application but may not provide sufficient residual control of plants that emerge following application.
Accurate identification of the various Amaranthus species can be very challenging, especially when the plants are in early vegetative stages. While each of the pigweeds previously described is recognized as a distinct species and has unique identification characteristics, hybridization among some of these species may produce offspring possessing characteristics of each parent, further complicating identification. The best time to accurately identify the various Amaranthus species is when the plants are at the reproductive stage with flowering structures present.
Waterhemp plants typically have no hairs (pubescence) on their stem and leaf surfaces. In contrast, smooth and redroot pigweed have small, fine hairs on stem and leaf surfaces that make the plant feel rough to the touch. The leaves of waterhemp plants are often glossy and more elongated (lanceolate) compared to redroot or smooth pigweed. Stem color of waterhemp can vary from light green to dark red, with multiple shades sometimes on the same plant. There does not appear to be a strong correlation between stem color and sex of the plant. Female plants may be completely red, completely green, or some combination of red and green. Male plants may exhibit a similar color pattern. Table 2 contains information for identification of the various Amaranthus species.
What is the best way to manage waterhemp in corn or soybean production systems? While there may not be any one "best" way, there are some methods that may be much more consistent than others. Whereas waterhemp may, in some instances, be adequately controlled by a single soil-applied or postemergence herbicide, this is generally not considered the most consistent method to manage this weed. The most consistent waterhemp management programs in either corn or soybean production systems consist of a sequential management approach. By sequential, we are referring to utilization of multiple control options, including tillage, cultivation, soil-applied herbicides, and postemergence herbicides. While a single postemergence herbicide application may sometimes provide acceptable waterhemp control, this is the exception rather than the rule. Waterhemp may well be the "poster weed" for an integrated weed-management program.
Considerations with Soil-Applied Herbicide Programs
There are numerous soil-applied herbicides that possess good activity on waterhemp and other small-seeded species. Time of application can have a significant impact on the success of soil-applied herbicides for waterhemp control. A common practice in no-till systems is to apply a herbicide several weeks prior to planting in order to receive sufficient precipitation to incorporate the herbicide. Keep in mind, however, that the earlier a herbicide is applied, the earlier within the growing season the level of weed control begins to decline. Waterhemp can emerge much later in the growing season than is common for other summer annual species. If the herbicide was applied several weeks prior to planting, it may not have sufficient residual activity remaining to control a late-emerging species such as waterhemp.
What can be done to extend the length of control afforded by soil-applied herbicides? Three possible options include:
1. If allowed by label, increase the rate when applications are to be made several weeks prior to planting.
2. Apply the herbicide in a split application (generally two-thirds early with the remaining one-third at planting).
3. Apply the herbicide closer to planting time.
In our research, we have had better and more consistent results with soil-applied herbicides that were applied within 1 to 2 weeks of planting or at planting compared to the same herbicides applied several weeks (up to 5 weeks) prior to planting. It's not reasonable to assume that all soil-applied herbicides can be applied immediately before planting due to time and equipment constraints, but fields with a significant waterhemp problem would be excellent candidates for soil- applied herbicide applications immediately before planting.
Considerations with Postemergence Herbicides
Similar to soil-applied programs, there are several postemergence herbicides that are very effective on waterhemp. The factors governing the effectiveness of postemergence herbicides are critically important when dealing with waterhemp. Herbicide rate, application timing, and spray additive influence how well postemergence herbicides perform against waterhemp.
Often, producers like to wait as long as possible to apply postemergence herbicides, especially those that lack any significant soil-residual activity, to have as many weeds emerged as possible. Because waterhemp can germinate and emerge for an extended time, there typically exists a wide range of plant sizes by the time postemergence herbicides are applied. This can present problems with spray interception by smaller plants under the protective canopy of larger plants. Adjustments in spray volume and pressure can help to overcome some of the problem with coverage. Spray volumes of 20 gallons per acre with application pressures of 40 to 50 pounds per square inch generally provide a very uniform coverage of the target vegetation.
The next issue of the Bulletin will contain more information about waterhemp management in corn and soybean production systems.-- Aaron Hager and Christy Sprague
The Pest Management and Crop Development Bulletin
Executive Editor: Kevin Steffey, Extension Entomologist
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List of Determinate Tomatoes from A to Z
What’s a determinate tomato, and why would you want a list of them? You can read our guide to tomato terminology here if you want to learn all the terms.
Determinate tomatoes, also known as bush tomatoes, are the type listed here. Bush tomatoes are bred to grow to a compact height, generally not more than four feet. They stop growing when the reach a certain height, normally not more than four feet. They also crop very quickly, with all of the fruit maturing over a period of a month or two. You get all your tomatoes in a short time period and then the plant is finished making tomatoes for the season.
Indeterminate tomatoes, also known as cordon tomatoes or vine tomatoes, continue to grow and produce fruit throughout the summer. Because of this, they either require staking for support, or you can leave them to lie on the ground. They keep growing and get bigger and bigger as time goes on. They keep making tomatoes over time, so you can keep picking them over an extended period.
If you have limited room in your garden or would just like to grow smaller plants and get your tomatoes over a shorter period, then determinate / bush tomatoes are the way to go.
Did we miss any of your favorite varieties? If so, leave a comment and let us know so we can add it.
The openly-pollinated determinate tomatoes come with a plant size of up to 2 feet. The fruits have very few seeds.
The determinate red tomatoes come with a slightly flattened profile. The fruit size reaches 8 oz.
These determinate tomatoes grow in abundant crops. They come with low acidity.
The semi-determinate tomatoes are characterized by bushy plants. Originating in Russia, they are suited to colder environments.
With Ukrainian roots, the semi-determinate tomatoes are characterized by a sweet flavor.
These determinate tomatoes were bred by De. Jim Gilbert of Hawaii. They have a deep red color and they are known for their sweet flavor.
With French origins, the semi-determinate tomatoes are recognizable with their long pointed shape. They are suitable for sauces.
These determinate tomatoes come from Yugoslavia. They are used in sauces, sandwiches or canning.
These determinate tomatoes come in 4-inch fruits. Their name comes from their light banana color.
The determinate tomatoes come from the Beaverlodge Research Center in Canada. With only 54 days to reach maturity, the tomatoes are suitable for colder environments.
With attractive marble flesh, the tomatoes come from seed woman Marina Danilenko. The determinate tomatoes are medium in size.
The determinate tomatoes were introduced by Luther Burbank. They are high in amino acids.
These determinate red tomatoes are already popular for shorter growing regions. The plant grows up to 3 feet.
The self-supporting indeterminate tomatoes grow on a bush. The size of the fruits measures up to 4” across.
The determinate tomatoes are suitable for salads and sandwiches. They have a deep red color.
The determinate tomatoes are very productive. They were introduced by Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds in 2004.
The red determinate tomatoes have a juicy profile. The tomatoes can be traced back to Czechoslovakia.
As a result of the Dwarf Tomato Project, the determinate tomatoes have a hybrid profile. They are a cross between Roza Vetrov and Anna Banana Russian. The tomatoes have a balanced sweet flavor.
Developed by the Dwarf Tomato Project, the determinate tomatoes are a cross between Dwarf Wild Fred and Brad’s Black Heart. They have a purple-black color.
With few seeds, the determinate tomatoes are suitable for canning. They take 60 days to mature.
These determinate tomatoes were first introduced in 1950. They are suitable for container-based growing.
The red determinate tomatoes are suitable for canning or snacking. They can grow up to 2”.
The semi-determinate tomatoes come in a pear shape form with a yellow-orange color. They are suitable for specialty salads.
With a dark red color, the determinate tomatoes grow on small plants. The fruits can reach up to 10oz.
Traced back to France, the indeterminate tomatoes can be grown in colder climates. The fruits have a deep red color.
Suitable for canning, juicing or slicing, the semi-determinate tomatoes are a cross between Wasatch Beauty and Pepper tomatoes.
The determinate cherries have a yellow to orange color. They are suitable for snacking.
The determinate cherry tomatoes have a golden color. They resist Verticillium and Mosaic viruses.
The determinate tomatoes are firm and suitable for chopping. They come in a plum-shape with a distinct golden color.
With a distinct look, the determinate tomatoes have a green color with yellow stripes. They have a long pointed shape.
The determinate tomatoes have a red color. Their fruits have the shape of pears.
The determinate yellow-orange tomatoes ripen slowly. They are suitable for high altitudes.
These determinate heirloom tomatoes come from Siberia. They produce 2-3 inch fruits.
With high acidity, the determinate tomatoes resist viruses. The fruits have blocky shapes.
The determinate tomatoes are bred to resist hot water. They are tolerant of the tobacco mosaic virus.
The determinate red tomatoes are suitable for canning. They take 76 days to mature.
High in antioxidants, the determinate tomatoes produce until frost. The red tomatoes need at least 6 hours of sun per day.
The mid-season determinate tomatoes are used for sauced and canning. They were developed for Eastern Canada and Northeast U.S.
The determinate heirloom tomatoes are used for canning and sauces. They are slightly larger than other Heinz varieties.
As their name suggests, these hybrid semi-determinate tomatoes are made for early harvest. The fruits grow up to 1/2oz.
The determinate tomatoes are thriving in hot and humid areas. They are resistant to cracking.
The determinate vines bear elongated fruits. They are larger than Roma tomatoes. The tomatoes are also higher in sugar.
The determinate tomatoes are a bred of the University of Hawaii. With a sweet flavor, the tomatoes were bred to resist bacteria and viruses.
The determinate tomatoes are high in sugar. As a result, they make great sauces.
The round determinate tomatoes grow up to 8oz. They are known to resist blight.
At 3oz, the determinate tomatoes are egg-sized. They have also been compared to plums in size.
The determinate tomatoes stay small. As a result, they can be grown in containers.
These semi-determinate tomatoes were introduced in 1979. They are suitable for winter storage.
The juicy determinate tomatoes come with an orange-red skin. They are suitable for canning.
With a red color, the determinate tomatoes are suitable for small gardens in cooler climates.
A type of large Roma, the determinate tomatoes have a plum shape. They resist popular viruses.
With a distinct Italian profile, the determinate tomatoes are known to fall off when fully ripe.
The determinate tomatoes have a sweet flavor. They are suitable for sauces.
The determinate tomatoes are suitable for sauces and soups. They have a tangy flavor.
The determinate tomatoes were introduced in 1919. They are a cross between Ponderosa and Dwarf Champion.
The determinate tomatoes are small but pear-shaped. Their fruits grow up to 0.7oz.
The determinate tomatoes are suitable for cooler climates. They mature in 63 days.
With a determinate profile, the tomatoes are sweet and suitable for early crops for cooler seasons.
The determinate wines can be grown in dry regions. The tomatoes are juicy and used for canning.
The semi-determinate tomatoes grow in clusters. Their fruits still reach up to 10oz.
The plum-shaped determinate tomatoes have a deep red color. Their 4oz fruits grow on 4-feet plants.
The dark red determinate tomatoes grow fruits of up to 4oz. They are suitable fresh or added to pasta.
These determinate heirloom tomatoes are suitable for higher altitudes and colder climates. They are used for canning and salads.
These black determinate tomatoes were developed by Tom Wagner. The cherry tomatoes still have a novelty profile as they were introduced around 2.000.
The Italian tomatoes are suitable for drying. They are determinate and they produce plum-shaped fruits.
With a distinct red color and green stripes, the determinate tomatoes are slightly larger than most cherry tomatoes.
With 54 days needed to reach maturity, the determinate tomatoes have a sweet flavor. They are consumed fresh.
These pink determinate tomatoes have a balanced flavor. They are a cross between Budai Torpe and Stump and one of the results of the Dwarf Tomato Project.
The semi-determinate yellow-orange tomatoes were developed by William Woys Wearer. They are suitable for salads.
The determinate tomatoes are known for making good sauces. Their fruits weigh between 2 and 3 ounces.
These bright red tomatoes can grow up to 6 ounces. The determinate fruits are used for sauces.
The determinate tomatoes are a cross. They come from Marglobe and J.T.D.
With a slightly flattened profile, the determinate tomatoes can be sliced. They grow to 12oz.
The red determinate tomatoes reach 10oz per fruit. They resist Fusarium Wilt Race 1 and Alternaria Stem Canker.
The semi-determinate tomatoes take 85 days to mature. Their seeds are available for purchase.
The determinate tomatoes were gifted in 1989’s Siberia by a man called Sasha. They have been seen as one of the best early producing tomatoes in the world.
These determinate tomatoes grow on 24” plants. They have Russian roots.
The determinate tomatoes were introduced in Edmonton, Canada. They are suitable for cooler areas.
The determinate red tomatoes produce 2-inch fruits. They are suitable for salads.
Made for salads or eating fresh, the determinate tomatoes produce until frost. They have thin skins.
With upright stems, the determinate vines are made for colder environments. They are recommended for early harvests.
The red determinate tomatoes have regular leaves. They come from Indian gardener Surender Katta.
The determinate red tomatoes have bushy, regular leaves. They come from Israel.
The determinate bright yellow tomatoes ripen early. They are known for heavy crops.
The determinate tomatoes are sweet and they have low acidity. They are used in salads.
The determinate yellow-orange tomatoes are suitable for hot and humid regions. They are good for slicing and sandwiches.
The red determinate tomatoes have an Italian elongated shape. They have a rich flavor and they can be used for canning.
With only 45 days needed to reach maturity, the determinate tomatoes were developed by the University of New Hampshire.
The deep red determinate tomatoes have a size of 10oz. Their leaf size is normal.
The semi-determinate tomatoes originate from Southern Italy. They are suitable for dryer regions.
The pink determinate tomatoes can be consumed fresh. The fruits have sizes of up to 8oz.
The small determinate tomatoes are quick to grow. They can be harvested in 50 days.
The round determinate tomatoes are disease-resistant. They grow on 3-feet plants.
The oval 3-ounce red fruits are planted in the fall. The determinate vines grow oval tomatoes.
Developed by the University of Wisconsin, the semi-determinate tomatoes are good for all purposes. They are not as red as Wisconsin 55.
With a red color with dark green stripes, the determinate tomatoes are suitable for salads. Their fruits reach 1-1/2 inches.
Want to learn more about determinate tomatoes?
University of Maine Cooperative Extension covers How to Grow Tomatoes: Difference Between Bush and Vining
On your list of determinate tomatoes, you don’t have Celebrity.
Working at a family farm market I believe this list has many tomato varieties I may never see. I believe that along with Celebrity there are quite a few more determinate tomatoes that did not make this list.
Both Bush Early Girl &
First Pick are on the list and detailed as Indeterminate. I will need to look through their indeterminate list to see if some missing determinates might be there.
I agree. Out of the 11 varieties that I have seeding, only one was on this list. Even Jubilee is missing.
Celebrity is considered a semi-determinate because it has limited growth but continues producing through a long season.
Types of Red Berries
Red berries are among the healthiest foods on the planet. High in anthocyanins, which are plant compounds that fight inflammation and cell damage, these tiny fruits are also low in calories and fat. But, don’t forget taste. Sweet, tart and flavorful, berries are delicious as a snack, in salads, on cereals, or for dessert. Include them in your daily diet for increased health.
When we think of red berries, we typically think of strawberries and raspberries, the most common red berries consumed in America. But don’t overlook round berries, such as currants and gooseberries. Many red berries grow wild throughout the country, but make sure you positively identify them since some red berries are toxic. Consult a field guide or take an expert with you to berry hunt in the wild.
Exploring Red Berries
Below are some of the most common red berries growing in the United States.
Bittersweet [Solanum dulcamara].
Toxic . Invasive throughout much of the Northeast, this vining plant is often used for decorative purposes. The bright purple flowers are followed by small, rounded fruit that ripen from green to orange to red.
Buffaloberry [Shepherdia argentea].
Found throughout the Rocky Mountains and the West, this shrub has sage colored leaves that resemble a Russian Olive. The red or orange fruits appear in the fall. They make excellent jam, but cause diarrhea if eaten raw.
Butcher’s Broom [Ruscus aculeatus].
Toxic . This small, shrubby plant has tough leaves with pointed tips. The berries are round and bright red.
Chokecherry [Prunus virginiana].
This plant isn’t really a berry, but a relative of the cherry. It is used to make sauces and jellies. Chokecherries grows wild throughout most of the United States on shrubs or even trees. Pick the berries when they’re deep red to almost purple. They have a bitter flavor, but taste delicious when processed into syrup. The leaves, seeds and bark are toxic.
Currant [Ribes rubrum]
Currants prefer cool temperatures and moist soils. The tart, juicy fruit is usually red although some varieties are white to pink. Currant juice makes excellent wines and jellies.
Elderberry [Sambucus nigra]
Elderberries are easy to grow and make lovely landscaping plants. The fruit are red, purple or black, depending on the species. They can cause indigestion if eaten raw, but make delicious syrups and wine. Researchers have found that elderberry syrup is effective for relieving cold and flu symptoms. Not all species produce edible fruit.
Gooseberry [Ribes grossularia]
Very tart translucent green fruits ripen to red. Some varieties remain green or are pink when ripe. Use gooseberries in pies and preserves.
Unbelievably expensive to buy at the grocery store, raspberries are simple to grow in a home garden. Choose a fall-bearing variety if you live in an area with harsh winters and spring frosts. Eat raspberries fresh, freeze them or make them into jam and syrup.
Rose hip [Rosa]
Many rose varieties, including wild roses, produce rose hips after blooms fade. The hips are seedy, with a slightly sweet, slightly bitter taste. They can be used in jams, syrups, wine and more, and are a good source of vitamin C.
Spindle [Euonymus europaeus].
Highly toxic . This low-lying shrub produces pinkish-red, lobed fruit. The fruit contain a bright orange seed and appears in the fall.
Besides being delicious, wild and cultivated strawberries are an excellent source of vitamin C. Strawberries need a bit more care than other berries, but homegrown strawberries taste infinitely better than those found in the stores. Even a small plot or container will yield several pints of juicy fruit.
Want to know more about edible and non-edible berries?
Did we miss any red berries? Leave a comment and let us know!
When she’s not writing about gardening, food and canning, Julie Christensen enjoys spending time in her gardens, which includes perennials, vegetables and fruit trees. She’s written hundreds of gardening articles for the Gardening Channel, Garden Guides and San Francisco Gate, as well as several e-books.
Two species of baneberry bushes are commonly found in North America – red baneberry plants (Actaea rubra) and white baneberry plants (Actaea pachypoda). A third species, Actaea arguta, is thought by many biologists to be a variant of red baneberry plants.
All are bushy plants largely identified by long roots and large, feathery saw-toothed leaves with fuzzy undersides. Racemes of small, fragrant white flowers that appear in May and June are replaced by clusters of berries in late summer. Mature height of the plants is about 36 to 48 inches (91.5 to 122 cm.).
The leaves of white and red baneberries are nearly identical, but the stems that hold the berries are much thicker in white baneberry plants. (This is important to note, as the fruit of red baneberries is occasionally white.)
Red baneberry plants are known by a variety of names including red cohosh, snakeberry, and western baneberry. The plants, which are common in the Pacific Northwest, produce glossy, red berries.
White baneberry plants are interestingly known as Doll’s Eyes for their odd-looking white berries, each marked with a contrasting black spot. White baneberries are also known as necklaceweed, white cohosh, and white beads.
Growing Tobacco Plants
Tobacco is cultivated as an annual but is actually a perennial and is propagated by seed. The seeds are sown in beds. One ounce of seed in 100 square yards of soil can produce up to four acres of flue-cured tobacco, or up to three acres of burley tobacco.
The plants grow for between six and 10 weeks before the seedlings are transplanted into the fields. The plants are topped (their heads removed) before the seed head develops, except for those plants that are used to produce next year's seed. This is done so all the plant's energy goes to increase the size and the thickness of the leaves.
The tobacco suckers (the flowering stalks and branches, which appear in response to the plant being topped) are removed so that only the large leaves are produced on the main stem. Because growers want the leaves to be large and lush, the tobacco plants are fertilized very heavily with nitrogen fertilizer. Cigar-wrapper tobacco, a staple of Connecticut agriculture, is produced under partial shade—resulting in thinner and less damaged leaves.
Plants grow in the field for three to five months until harvest. The leaves are removed and purposely wilted in drying barns, and fermentation takes place during curing.
Diseases striking tobacco plants include:
- Bacterial leaf spot
- Black root rot
- Black shank
- Downy mildew
- Fusarium wilt
- Tobacco mosaic virus
Pests that attack the plant include:
- Flea beetles
- Green June beetle larvae
Rubus occidentalis The Genus Rubus includes blackberry, dewberry, and raspberry and most members of the Genus share the traits of thorny or bristly stems and compound leaves. Also, flowers and fruit appear on last season&rsquos canes (branches), seldom on new shoots, which means one must be cautious when pruning and not remove the canes that will yield next year's berries. There are differences, however, among species for example, some are erect or arching shrubs up to 8 feet high and others trail on the ground like vines. Some, such as dewberries, produce fruits in the spring while blackberries and raspberries fruit during the summer. In general, Genus Rubus contains some of the most important plants for wildlife in the southeast.. Rubus occidentalis, or Black raspberry, is a native, deciduous perennial shrub in the Roseaceae family. It is common in the mountains, but scarce in the Piedmont and coastal plain of North Carolina. It can be found specifically along roadsides, in woodlands, and disturbed areas. If planted in sites that are sunny and dry, the fruit may not develop properly without adequate rain. The canes also fail to set fruit if there is too much shade. The canes start out growing erect to about 6 feet long in the first year, but eventually arch sideways and down and can reach the ground. Rubus occidentalis prefers partial sun and moist, highly organic soil. This plant is heat tolerant. Black raspberry is moderately resistant to damage from deer. It provides excellent cover year round. Butterflies and other insects are attracted to the blooms and the fruits are eaten by songbirds, small mammals, foxes, raccoons, and black bears. During the winter, birds and small mammals eat the seeds left from rotted fruit. White-tailed deer and rabbits browse the leaves. Diseases, Insects, and Other Plant Problems: Other than honey fungus, to which most Rubus species are susceptible, there are no known problems. Leaves and flowers (Monroe County, NY)-Late Spring Douglas Goldman, USDA CC BY-NC 4.0 White flower close-up (Monroe County, NY)-Late Spring Douglas Goldman, USDA CC BY-NC 4.0 Side view of flower (Monroe County, NY)-Late Spring Douglas Goldman, USDA CC BY-NC 4.0 Stem with thorns (Monroe County, NY)-Late Spring Douglas Goldman, USDA CC BY-NC 4.0 Trifoliate leaves (Monroe County, NY)-Late Spring Douglas Goldman, USDA CC BY-NC 4.0 Fruit, unripe (red), ripe (black) Alina Zienowicz CC BY-SA 3.0 Karen Hine CC BY-SA 3.0 Flower Jennifer Anderson. United States, IA, Muscatine Co., Muscatine, Wild Cat Den State Park. What is the name of this bush with red fruits? - Biology
Identifying Invasive Plants
For additional images, click on a scientific name. To view a high resolution version of an image, click on the image.
Bush honeysuckle - Lonicera maackii
Example of the problem: Percy Warner Park, Nashville, TN
Dense undergrowth of bush honeysuckle shades out early-spring herbaceous plants.
Bush honeysuckle has been removed in this area which is adjacent the location shown in the left image.
Native species that might be confused with bush honeysuckle:
coralberry (Symphorocarups orbiculatus) and spicebush (Lindera benzoin)
Bush honeysuckle has opposite leaves that taper to a point.
Coralberry also has opposite leaves, but their tips are more rounded.
Although their tips tend to be pointed, spicebush leaves are arranged alternately on the twig. Crushed spicebush leaves also have a spicy smell.
Comparison of flowers (spring)
Bush honeysuckle - Fragrant, showy white flowers appear after the leaves are present.
Coralberry - Small greenish flowers in July
Spicebush - Small yellowish-green flowers appear in early spring before the leaves have emerged.
Comparison of fruit (fall)
Red bush honeysuckle berries.
Pink coralberry berries.
Red spicebush berries.
Japanese honeysuckle - Lonicera japonica
Dense Japanese honeysuckle vines on a stream bank in Radnor Lake State Natural Area, TN.
Japanese honeysuckle covering trees on a roadside in Tennessee
Native species that might be confused with Japanese honeysuckle:
Japanese honeysuckle is a thin, twining vine and is not easily confused with common native vines. For comparison purposes, the most common native vines are: poison ivy (Toxicodentron radicans) and crossvine (Bignonia capreolata).
Japanese honeysuckle leaves are simple and arranged oppositely on the vine.
Poison ivy had three leaflets and the leaves are not paired on the vine.
Crossvine has two leaflets per leaf and the leaves are paired on the vine.
Comparison of flowers
Japanese honeysuckle flowers are showy and fragrant. They are first white and become more yellow with age.
Poison ivy flowers are small and scentless.
Crossvine flowers are large. They are red and yellow.
Japanese honeysuckle fruits are small and black.
Poison ivy fruits are yellowish white and clustered.
Crossvine fruits are an elongated capsule. However, crossvine does not commonly produce mature fruit.
Example of the problem: Percy Warner Park, Nashville, TN
On the left side of this trail, non-native privet has been removed. On the right it has not. Like several other invasive plants, non-native privet produces leaves early in the spring, reducing light available for other plants that form leaves later in the season.
non-native privet forms dense, nearly impenetrable thickets.
Removal of non-native privet allows sunlight to reach plants on the forest floor.
Easily confused with the native upland swamp-privet (Foresteria ligustrina).
Non-native privet has glossy, evergreen leaves with no teeth.
The native privet has deciduous leaves with tiny teeth.
Tree of heaven - Ailanthus altissima
A. altissima can form dense stands. It is a common "weed tree" in urban areas but can also invade disturbed forest areas.
Native species that might be confused with Ailanthus:
sumac (Rhus) species (smooth sumac Rhus glabra, winged or shining sumac Rhus copallinum, staghorn sumac Rhus typhina) and black walnut (Juglans nigra)
Ailanthus leaf scar
Smooth sumac leaf scar
Black walnut leaf scar.
Sumac twigs produce milky sap when cut.
Characteristic chambered pith in black walnut twig cross section.
Winged fruit of Ailanthus.
Cluster of small smooth sumac fruits.
Black walnut fruit is a large nut.
Example of problem: rural Davidson Co., TN
Kudzu has earned the name "the plant that ate the South" because of its ability to spread over wide areas and engulf trees.
Euonymus alata (winged burning bush) Euonymus fortunei (winter creeper)
Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife)
Vascular bundle consists of TWO main parts.
@. Xylem: the water conducting tissue
@. Phloem: the food conducting tissue
Xylem and phloem are complex tissues, i.e., they contain different types of tissues.
Components of xylem: Tracheids, Vessels, Xylem fibres and Xylem parenchyma.
Components of phloem: Sieve cells/Sieve tubes, Companion cells, Phloem parenchyma, Phloem fibres (bast fibres).
How vascular bundles originate in plants?
The elements of xylem and phloem are always organized in groups called VASCULAR BUNDLES. The vascular tissue system develops from the pro-cambium of apical meristem (pro-meristem). During apical growth, the pro-cambium produce a layer of longitudinally elongated cells which are slender and with dense cytoplasm. These strands during the course of time differentiate into xylem and phloem and organize into vascular bundles.
Different types of vascular bundles:
Vascular bundles are classified based MANY criterion
(1). Based on presence or absence cambium/secondary growth
1. Open vascular bundles
2. Closed vascular bundles
Cambium is a meristematic tissue responsible for secondary growth in plants.
In open vascular bundles a layer of cambium will be present between the xylem and phloem and thus they shows secondary growth. The word –open- literally means ‘open for secondary growth. Open vascular bundles are the characteristic of dicotyledons (dicots). The cambium present between xylem and phloem is called FASCICULAR CAMBIUM.
In closed vascular bundles, the cambium will be absent (fascicular cambium absent) and they do not show secondary growth (closed for secondary growth). Closed vascular bundles are seen in monocotyledons (monocots).
(2). Based on arrangement in the plant body
1. Radial vascular bundles
2. Conjoint vascular bundles
In radial vascular bundles the components are arranged separately (truly they cannot be called as bundles). Here the xylem and phloem are arranged SEPARATELY in different RADII. Radial vascular bundles are typically found in the ROOTS of monocots and dicots.
Typical vascular bundles are conjoint vascular bundles. Here the xylem and phloem are arranged TOGETHER in the same RADIUS. Conjoint vascular bundles are seen in STEM and LEAVES.
Three types of conjoint vascular bundles are seen, they are:
(a). Collateral vascular bundle
(b). Bi-collateral vascular bundle
(c). Concentric vascular bundles
(a). Collateral vascular bundles:
A type of conjoint vascular bundle where xylem is arranged towards the interior (adaxial) and the phloem arranged towards the exterior (abaxial). Collateral vascular bundles are the most common type of vascular bundle. They may be open or closed based on the presence or absence of cambium within them (and secondary growth).
(b). Bi-collateral Vascular Bundles
In this type of conjoint vascular bundle, phloem is present in two groups, one outside the xylem and the other inside the xylem (i.e., xylem is located between two strands of phloem). Bi-collateral vascular bundles are characteristic of some Angiosperm families such as Cucurbitaceae (Cephalandra, Cucurbita).
(3). Concentric Vascular Bundles:
A type of conjoint vascular bundle with one vascular element completely surrounds the other. Either the phloem surrounds xylem or the xylem surrounds the phloem.
Concentric vascular bundles are of two types:
(i). Amphicribral (hadrocentric) vascular bundle
(ii). Amphivasal (leptocentric) vascular bundle
(i). Amphicribral (hardocentric) vascular bundles
In amphicribral or hardocentric vascular bundle, the xylem is located at the centre surrounded by a ring of phloem. Example: Meristeles of Ferns, small vascular traces of flowers, fruits and ovules.
(ii). Amphivasal (leptocentric) vascular bundles
In this type of concentric vascular bundle, the phloem is located at the centre, surrounded by a ring of xylem. Example: Dracaena stem, Rumex and Begonia.
Functions of Vascular bundles:
The prime function vascular bundle is the conduction of water and food materials in the primary growth stage of plants. Xylem transport the water absorbed by roots to the leaves, whereas the phloem transport food materials form leaves (photosynthetic products) to all part of the plants including roots. Vascular bundles also provides mechanical support (a mechanical tissue) to the plant.